"We Feel the Heat Too": Lancasternulls Civil Rights Movement in the Summer of 1963
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Most Americans perceive that the Civil Rights Movement took place in the South, where segregation was enforced by law. However, areas in the North, such as Lancaster Pennsylvania, also worked to ensure equal rights for black Americans. During the hot summer months of 1963, residents fought to end discrimination practices with a series of demonstrations in order to protest the obvious racism in the city. Interviews with Lancaster’s civil rights activists reveal that the movement in Lancaster was only partly successful. For each contentious issue--equal employment and access to public accommodations--the Civil Rights Movement in Lancaster can claim some success. But this thesis shows that the legacy of Lancaster’s civil rights protests is mixed. Many employers and business-owners offered effective resistance to integration, but civil rights activists claim other victories, including winning more popular support for integration and creating county facilities open to whites and blacks. Using seven oral histories, this thesis examines the goals of nondiscriminatory hiring and open public accommodations as well as the changes—large and small—that grew out of this turbulent summer.
Franklin and Marshall College Archives, Undergraduate Honors Thesis 2006
- F&M Theses Collection